Arthur de Gobineau (1816-1882) is a controversial 19th century French man. Member of an aristocratic royalist family, he was a novelist, poet, diplomat and a social thinker. Yet, he is mostly known as being the father of the racist theory. In his Essay about the Inequalities of Races, he theorizes the purity of races.
According to Gobineau, all races are pure in their origins, but their miscegenation leads to their degeneration. The purest race would be the Aryan (descendant from the Indo-Europeans, which for him was the white race) but when it encountered the black and yellow races it degenerated. Unintentionally, Gobineau became a major source of inspiration for nazi thinkers and other racist theories.